REPRODUCED AT THE NATIONAL ARCHIVES
[Copy: VTS:SS ]
[740.00115A Pacific War/1112])
THE FOREIGN SERVICE OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
Via Air Mail Pouch
Bern, March 9, 1944.
American Interests - China
Transmission camp report No. 2
Copy of camp report No. 2
on Weihsien camp - with original of dispatch only.
File No. 711.5
In quintuplicate to Department
Enclosure No. 1 to despatch No. 7500.
dated March 9, 1944
from the American ―――,
CONSULATE GENERAL QUESTIONNAIRE
A 1. Japanese Camp Commandant.
Mr. Tsukigawa, a member of the Consular service previously Vice Consul at Honolulu at the outbreak of the war, and now under Tsingtao Consul General Mr. Kita. Mr. Kita insists that he and his staff had a very rough treatment at Honolulu and this is the principal reason why the Camp remained in the Shantung Province.
Mr. Tsukigawa being the official Camp Director, the real responsible man is Mr. Kakigawa, Consul in Tsingtao, unfortunately Mr. Tsukigawa, is often incapable of making a decision, and most if not all are made or at least influenced by his heads of departments in the Camp.
A 2. Camp Representatives.
The four groups of internees from Peking, Tientsin, Catholics.
A 6. Internal Organisation.
Tsingtao and Outports were instructed to elect one representative to each of the following nine committees, the four members of each committee electing their own Chairman, who became the liaison officer for that department:
Four Japanese heads of departments control 1+2, 3+4, 5+6 and 7+8 whilst 9 is directly under the chief of Police. The system is cumbersome and leads to duplication of work which, however, is being eliminated as time goes on. The greatest drawback is that matters requiring urgent decisions are bounced around from one department to another by the Japanese ― often possibly on purpose. There is adequate talent available amongst the internees to cover all duties in the Camp but the lamentable shortage of tools and materials constantly retards the efforts of all to improve conditions.
Although there are exceptions the heads of departments are not bad people to deal with, but their hands are tied and they have the greatest difficulty in persuading their seniors, including military at Peking and Tsingtao, to supply the bare necessities of life.
The Japanese staff of the Camp varies from time to time but consists approximately of:
|4||Heads of department|
|30/40||Policemen / Guards|
A 3. Number of Internees.
A detailed list of all internees is in preparation and will be mailed soon with all particulars.
A 5. Daily Routine.
|Roll Call||7:30 a.m.|
|Breakfast||8:00 / 8:30 a.m.|
|Tiffin||12:30 / 1:15 p.m.|
|Supper||6:00 / 6:30 p.m.|
|Lights Out||10:00 p.m.|
With the exception of the cleaning out of cesspools all work is undertaken by internees, e.g. preparing, cooking and serving meals, baking, pumping of water, cleaning of lavatories and bath houses, carrying stores, coal, etc., bricklaying, joinery, hospital, street cleaning and carriage of garbage, milking of cows, etc. For details of work hours etc. see notes on "Labor". The daily routine of individuals varies greatly, and is dependent upon labor assignment. Hours of work cannot be considered excessive and one of the problems to be faced is prevention of boredom as and when the Camp is cleaned up and settled down to a regular existence. Field capacity for games is somewhat inadequate, which results in too many spectators and too few players; whilst recreation rooms are few-existent, in consequence of which the elders have little facilities for card playing, etc. housing quarters being too crowded to permit of play therein. In summer, games can be had outside the houses under straw shades over the doors and the library is at their disposal. All adults, in addition to their assigned duties, are required to assist in sweeping of paths, etc. fronting their block or dormitory, cleaning of dormitories, etc., etc. Each block or dormitory is controlled by a Warden (internee) who is responsible for enforcement of discipline, and the various regulations promulgated by the Camp Committees
B. Description of Houses.
Individual houses are built of brick, mostly hollow wall, in lime mortar; they are (most of them) unscreened.
Roofing is of unglazed tile with plaster ceilings laid on kaoliang stalks, average height of ceiling about 9 ft; No. 50 building, however, has a corrugated iron roof with similar ceiling.
Flooring is of painted wood laid over an earth floor with little or no air space; floor-boarding is of 1/2" soft pine laid on joists 24" apart. Two story buildings are of better construction, being the original mission buildings.
Heating will be by coal stove in all cases, there is no provision in any building for other types of heating, each house has provision for a stove pipe to be put through the back wall but installation of stoves will prove a fairly difficult matter in the present overcrowded rooms and dormitories. No stoves are at present installed though there are stocks of same under the Authorities care, total number unknown but believed ample.
Ventilation is provided by one window in the front of the house and one small window in the back wall, the exception to this being Row 43 which runs along the N Boundary wall and contains 27 rooms having no window in the back wall.
One forty watt lamp globe and fitting is provided for each room and about an equal distribution by area for the dormitories ― the lighting thus provided is insufficient for reading or doing any close work in the evenings. Lights are turned on at dusk and are turned off at the main at 10.00 p.m. no light is allowed after that time unless permission has been obtained from the police.
B 7. Camp General Capacity.
Estimated at 1400 persons only.
B 8. Nbr. of Rooms of Average Size.
12'6" x 8'11" = 430.
Each of these rooms is suitable for 2 persons but are made to hold 3 and 21 cases 4 persons (2 of these are small children). When stoves are put in, in the winter there will be some danger of asphyxiation and/or fires. These rooms are almost all of them used for families.
B. 10. Nbr. of Dormitories.
There are 9 buildings, including the Hospital, used as dormitories.
Building No. 23 has 13 rooms containing a total of approximately 7,480 sq. feet and is occupied by 180 persons, or about 41½ sq. ft. per person. The occupants are Catholic Sisters and unattached ladies.
Building No. 24 has 9 rooms containing a total of approximately 4,900 sq. feet and is occupied by 90 persons, or about 54.4 sq. ft. per person. The occupants are Catholic Sisters and unattached ladies.
Building No. 35 has 5 rooms containing a total of 2,140 sq. feet and is occupied by 38 persons, or approximately 56 sq. feet per person. Actually 4 of these rooms are 16' x 15' and hold 5 and 6 persons each, which is less than 50 sq, feet per person. This building is occupied by unattached ladies.
Building No. 44 has 6 rooms containing a total of 2,060 sq. feet and is occupied by 32 persons, or 64 sq. feet per person. However, 3 of these rooms are of the 10'8" x 9' variety, containing 5 persons between them. This building is occupied by unattached men.
Building No. 49 is one room of. 960 sq. feet and is occupied by 14 unattached men ― giving 64 sq. feet per person.
Building No. 50 has 8 rooms of total area of 5,770 sq. feet and is occupied by 98 unattached men. One of these rooms is an attic in the rafters and contains 11 persons. The one big dormitory of 2,093 sq. feet contains 32 persons and is on the second floor.
The other buildings 56 57 and the top of 61 are all occupied by Catholic Fathers and are decidedly over-crowded. These buildings (except 61) are constructed of small rooms, which are shared by 2, 3 or 4 Catholic Fathers.
Building 61 has 31 rooms above the first floor; the first floor being reserved for hospital use. These 31 rooms contain 157 Fathers.
Complaints. The overcrowding is not so important now the warm weather is with us, as many can sleep outside, but with the coming winter, when stoves will have to be placed in all rooms there will be serious danger of fire and asphyxiation. No small room should have more than 2 persons as they (other than dormitories) are low ceilinged. Negotiations for more space are going on, but up to date no definite decision is made.
B 11. WATER SUPPLY
Supply is hand pumped by internees from eight hand pumps, situated one to each kitchen (3) (reported No. 4 Kitchen became Hospital diet Kitchen), one to each boiler room (2), one for hospital, and two others. Boiler room and hospital pumps are connected to water towers of various capacities, capacity of pump is about one quart per stroke. Various wells have run dry on occasions notably those at No. 2 kitchen, No. 1 kitchen and ladies' shower baths.
Some water restrictions have been enforced ever since the Camp was opened and cannot be lifted. The Authorities promised the provision of an electric pump and as all water has to be pumped from eight wells with inadequate equipment it is quite safe to say that the supply is insufficient. Water will have to be pumped from the river or from deep wells electrically before the water situation can be considered approaching satisfactory, but up to day Peking has not yet sanctioned the capital lay out.
Bacterial infection of the water supply is certain (in the opinion of the internees) due to the close proximity of cess pools, soak-away pits, etc., to the wells. All wells are built in lime mortar with local native brick; their linings cannot be considered satisfactory and the infiltration of large quantities of polluted surface water must take place. The wells had not been cleaned out when the Camp was taken over as has been proved by the removal of considerable debris from the bottom in certain cases.
Against the internees opinion the Japanese Army and Navy bacteriologists from Tsingtao insist that the water is good even better than in Tsingtao, and that there is no infiltration possible, as the water would have to pass through 40 - 50 feet of sand and therefore even if it would be true, water passing sand such a distance could be free of bacteria as the analysis has proved. So please do not worry too much. Missionaries who have been living for years in the Compound confirm that the boiled water is quite safe; as the compound had previously more than 1,200 students and no sickness occurred caused through water supply.
The water is medium hard and causes quite .considerable scale deposits in kettles, kuos, boilers, etc.
All water for drinking has to be boiled, like all over Shantung, except in Tientsin, where there are artesian wells.
c. Facilities for Boiling
On arrival in the Camp there were no facilities for boiling water other than the kuos installed for cooking in each kitchen. Two vertical water boilers were salvaged by the Internees Engineering Dept. and installed at Nos. 1 and 2 kitchens.
The boilers that supply steam for heating the shower baths have now been coupled up with tanks and the distillate is collected and issued as distilled water, this again, is entirely due to the work of the Internees Engineering Dept. The drinking water situation is somewhat improved by the above, but still leaves much to be desired as regards quantity and would have been serious in the extreme if it has been left to the Authorities.
B 12, Toilets.
Three washrooms with cold water under 50 F are provided for the men, served by water laid on from the aforementioned towers. One similar wash room is provided for ladies’ use. Accommodation of ladies wash room is insufficient as they take a long time for washing.
There is little provision at the present time for washing of clothes inside the Camp and the outside laundry is limited as mentioned in the report under laundry.
B 13. Bathing Facilities.
These are of two types
(a) Squat-bowl, draining into cesspools.
(b) Chinese, open latrines.
There are 22 of these of which 18-20 are usually in working order. They are “Chinese servant” type, no seat or even a grip being provided to aid squatting. Originally they were designed for flushing but owing to the bad material (all broken up within 3 days) they are now flushed by bucket by each user; women and children find this a difficult task. Used, dirty water is kept in an earthenware kang at each latrine for this purpose. The latrines are arranged in 4 groups of 4, 5, 5, 8 (ladies). They are not fly-screened. The 4 cesspools into which these latrines drain have no overflow mechanism. They must be emptied daily by Chinese labor, using gasoline tins on pole carriers; when it rains emptying is difficult owing to the impassability of the roads. For one group voluntary Camp labor has made a temporary overflow pit. For the others this is not possible since the Authorities refuse up to now to cooperate in providing piping, etc.
There are 40 of these in groups of 6, 5, 4, 2 and 1. They are emptied once daily by Chinese labor.
Only one (a 5 group) is fly-screened. No chloride of lime is provided. Ashes and slaked lime are used. In twelve of them a commode is installed.
The Authorities have strictly forbidden and prevented their attempts to dig Army-type trench latrines and negotiations are still going on.
It is expected that internees will do their own repair work, but little in the way of material has so far been provided except for some timber and practically no tools are available with which to do the work. It is obvious from the condition of the Camp that it was not ready to receive the internees and that the Authorities had no idea of the scope of the undertaking they had started.
The water supply question is one which needs urgent attention, cleaning of lavatories is of equal importance and all possible is done on my part to secure the electric pump. The assurance of a regular sufficient fuel supply should be forthcoming whereas there are no signs that such a stock has been considered.
B.15 Laundry Facilities.
Laundry facilities are now practically non-existent. In the basement of the hospital there is one room, now No. 4 Laundry capable of handling only a part of the camp laundry. A Japanese laundry situated at Fangtze, some eight miles from the camp, has done since the beginning of the Camp some washing of sheets, towels, and other heavy pieces, but the service has been unsatisfactory and at the moment has stopped entirely due to a misunderstanding between the Fangtze laundry and the camp officials, but this service will be resumed soon. (has not resumed)
In the meantime nearly all laundry had been done by individuals in their residences under difficult circumstances.
D. 34 Canteen.
The canteen has been very slow in getting into operation. The internees were given to understand by the high Japanese authorities in Peking that a well stocked canteen would be awaiting them on their arrival. In fact, it could not open at all until three weeks after the arrival of the people and then for the sale of only five kinds of toilet articles of inferior quality. Only one of each is sold to each person per month.
However, the canteen organization has grown and improved considerably during the past month and prices, while high, do not seem to be exorbitant in the light of those prevailing outside the camp.
The canteen accommodations have been utterly inadequate and the staff and public have been subject to a great deal of hardship, but at the moment more commodious accommodations have been arranged for and it is believed that the canteen will soon be on a satisfactory basis.
The authorities have been urged repeatedly to stock such articles as eggs, honey and peanut oil, all of which are freely obtainable in this province and Weihsien, and if supplied to the internees in reasonable quantities would go far to assuring adequate nutrition. The authorities have always replied that they are unable to secure more than limited quantities of these products and this has resulted in sales being rigidly restricted. Eggs, for instance, are supplied at the rate of two per person per week and so far no honey or peanut oil had been sold. The lack of fresh fruit is also causing unnecessary hardship with regard to diet.
A list of what has been ordered and items received is shown herewith, together with a notation as to whether the quantities in the canteen have been adequate for camp requirements.
|Blank||- No arrivals|
|R||- Rationed, 10 per day|
|Canned Fish (sardines etc)|
|Flash Light Batteries|
|Assorted Tools (hammers, etc.)|
35. Clothing outfit in general.
There are no supplies of clothing for sale in the camp or facilities for making men's or women's clothing.
36. Facilities for repairs.
A fairly satisfactory repair service has been organized and is run by camp ladies. The demand for repairs is very heavy and supplies of materials for patching, supplies of thread, buttons, etc. are always inadequate, and difficulties are experienced in securing such supplies.
In and Out going mail service.
(a) Nbr. of letters per month.
Inward mail has been most unsatisfactory and in many cases letters written about the middle of May by people in Tientsin and Peking have mentioned that as many as five or six letters had been written previously, none of which had been received in the camp. It would seem reasonably certain that approximately 75% of letters written to the camp are not received. One letter which, according to the post office shop, reached the Weihsien office on June 12 ― held 53 days in Weihsien.
Mail was received for dispatch weekly from March 24 to May 3 inclusive without restriction as to the number of letters or postcards per person or as to the length of contents except that letters were limited to one sheet of paper each ― any size and both sides might be used. Records were kept of the letters and postcards handed in on April 12, 19, 26 and May 3, which totaled 2097.
From May 10 onwards, all letters and postcards had to be typewritten or in block letters and it was decided to return to the senders all those previously accepted but not yet dispatched which did not comply with these requirements. The number so returned totaled 1374. On May 31 postcards only were accepted for dispatch and were restricted to one per internee ten years of age and over. 640 postcards were received on that date. On June 7 letters, which it was requested should be short, or postcards that were restricted to one per person of ten years of age or over were accepted and totaled 581.
Some of the postcards accepted on May 31 and all of the letters and postcards accepted on June 7, not having left the camp on June 14, the reception of further mail has been suspended.
To the best of their knowledge no letters or postcards handed in at the Center for dispatch prior to the above dates had been received in Peking or Tsingtao up to May 12 or in Tientsin up to May 27.
The tentative arrangement which is to be tried is to allow each Person over ten years of age one letter of not more than 15O, words and three postcards of not, more than 50 words every four weeks one letter or postcard to be received by the camp post office on Mondays only.
40. Parcel Service.
There is no outward parcel service but inward parcel service seems to be fairly good. According to Camp records, only one parcel has been lost out of about 150 which the Committee knows were dispatched to the camp.
42. Regular Religious Services.
There is no restriction whatsoever on religious services. All sects and creeds may hold services at any time or place that circumstances permit. (See previous reports)
C - HEALTH CONDITIONS'
C 17. General State of Health:
In view of their present circumstances of living, the general state of health of the population of the Weihsien Centre has been, surprisingly good, particularly when the large number of elderly individuals and those suffering from chronic ailments is kept in mind. Such factors as long hours of rest and sleep, regular exercise, plenty of exposure to fresh air and sunlight, a simple (even if inadequate) diet, the inaccessibility of alcohol and the freedom from responsibility and worry attendant on regimented living all seem to have helped to bring-about the result. Also, the climate has, so far, proved very favorable.
C 18 Number of deaths since opening of Camp.
C 19 Name, Nationality of deceased.
Only one death has occurred since the camp was opened. The individual in question, Mr. F. C. Stoffer, aged 35 years, American, Colored, of Tientsin, developed an acute perforation of a peptic ulcer in the early morning of April 5. The Camp Hospital was in no condition at that time to permit a major surgical procedure to be undertaken, so it was necessary to send the patient elsewhere for treatment. The German Hospital in Tsingtao was recommended, but the patient was taken to a Japanese Hospital in that city instead. A camp physician was allowed to accompany him to Tsingtao and was allowed to stay for the operation which was performed approximately 24 hours after the perforation had occurred. The patient died some days later. Had it been possible to operate immediately the chance of saving his life may be estimated at about 80%.
C 20 Illnesses: Number and nature.
About 10 days after reaching camp a case of typhus fever developed in a Trappist father from Yang Chia Ping. Fortunately, the course of the disease was mild and complete recovery followed. The disease obviously was brought into camp from the outside, and vigorous measures taken to isolate and de-louse all contacts prevented spread to others. In response to an appeal to Dr. Hoeppli which the authorities were willing to transmit 25 sets of typhus vaccine were received promptly and administered to contacts who had never been inoculated previously. There are many other individuals in camp, however, who have never been inoculated against this disease and if the present crowded living conditions now prevalent in some of the, dormitories persist into the winter months, the possibility of an outbreak of typhus fever must be seriously considered. It is hoped some way may be found to provide a considerable supply of vaccine before that time.
Chicken-pox, mumps and whooping cough all were brought into the camp at the beginning, but the cases proved mild, and measures taken for isolation soon brought them under control.
Due to the inadequate sanitary arrangements, and the complete lack of screening of kitchens, dining rooms and latrines, the medical staff has been daily anticipating the outbreak of an epidemic of dysentery. With inadequate hospital bed space, inadequate drug supply and inadequate equipment, it fears that such an outbreak might easily prove disastrous.
Influenza-like colds have been numerous, but fortunately only a few cases of bronco-pneumonia have been observed.
Low back pain, lumbago, sciatica and sacro-iliac strain have been common, as also has been the exacerbation of chronic arthritic conditions and ailments of the feet brought on by the participation of internees in heavy labor and various occupations to which they were unaccustomed. Many of these ailments are yielding to time, the return of warm weather and the gradual strengthening of muscles and ligaments, but in quite a few instances the conditions have proved intractable and the medical staff has been greatly handicapped in treating such patients by the absence of facilities for physical therapy and the impossibility of securing belts, braces, shoes, arch supports or orthopedic equipment of any kind.
There are in camp many individuals suffering from sprue, peptic ulcer, diabetes, tuberculosis and other acute and chronic ailments requiring for proper treatment special types, amounts and cooking of food. This group of individuals had particularly difficult time for the first two months because almost no possibility existed for meeting their dietary needs. A varying but always inadequate amount of milk has been supplied and they have been allowed to purchase no more than one egg a day through the hospital canteen. These have been the only concessions allowed. Otherwise the patients have been forced to do the best they could on the regular camp diet, supplemented, when possible, by private supplies brought into the camp. During the last week in May it finally became possible to open a special diet kitchen in the hospital basement for the feeding of these patients. This arrangement offers some help since it is now possible to give attention to individual needs as far as the cooking of food is concerned. There is still no special consideration given to the kinds or amounts of food provided. The supplies just received through Mr. Egger and Mr. Joerg (June 14) will prove most valuable in this respect. A dairy herd recently has been brought into camp which should help improve the milk supply. The hospital estimates the minimum requirements for both in-patients and out-patients (including infants and growing children) at 30 gallons a day. The amounts so far have varied from 15 to 22 gallons per day. 50 gallons could be used advantageously for the ill alone.
Twenty five individuals are present in the camp who are known to have active or possibly active tuberculosis. In the absence of X-Ray facilities accurate diagnosis is difficult. Many of this group are in need of hospital or sanatorium care, most are in need of isolation, all are in need of extra food and special dietary care. Eight of 26 hospital beds for adults have been set aside for these patients but for neither in-patients nor out-patients can standard anti-tuberculosis treatment be provided. Several individuals are in need of pneumo-thorax treatment. Neither pneumo-thorax nor X-Ray apparatus is available. An outbreak of food poisoning, presumably due to infected meat served in one of the camp dining rooms, occurred during the week ending June 5. About 75 patients were ill, 20 of them seriously ill. All recovered.
One case of acute appendicitis and one of acute intestinal obstruction have been observed. In both instances operation was performed successfully. Two deliveries have taken place.
C-21 Camp Doctors, Dentists.
c) Visiting doctors, dentists.
b) Interned doctors.
A medical staff adequate in number is available among the internees. It has been somewhat handicapped, however, in having no one in its number with special training in the fields of orthopedics, otolaryngology or urology. The roster of the medical staff follows. No Japanese resident or visiting physician is in attendance.
22. Camp Clinic.
The Shadyside Hospital of the Weihsien Presbyterian Mission enjoyed the reputation previous to the outbreak of the war, of being one of the best designed, constructed and equipped mission hospitals in North China. At the time the camp was opened in March 1943, however, it was completely unfit for use. All plumbing, including the water system, heating system and steam system for operating the sterilizing units had been largely torn out and carried away. Pipes had been pulled from the walls leaving gaping holes. Kitchen stoves had been wrecked and all ordinary hospital utensils and housekeeping equipment was gone. About half of the beds remained but all, mattresses, blankets, sheets and linen had been taken away. The X-Ray unit and all surgical instruments and other equipment had been removed. A few drugs still were present in the pharmacy and a few odds and ends of equipment mostly in damaged or broken condition were littered about with dust and filth in the corridors and rooms. Nothing had been done to put the hospital in order. The second and third floors (including the operating room suite) had been assigned as a dormitory to the Belgian Fathers who also occupied one of the two hospital wards on the main floor. Subsequently this ward was cleared.
By volunteer labor the main floor and basement of the hospital gradually were cleaned up and equipped with supplies brought in by the internees, salvaged from the wreckage or improvised from odds and ends. It was almost impossible to secure buckets, brushes or any other cleaning equipment. Most of the soap used was contributed by the workers from their private stores. All water had to be carried in by hand. Medical and surgical Clinics were started, however, on March 29. The first patient was admitted on April 6. On April 20 two outlets for running water finally were brought into each floor. Bedding, towels, basins and eating utensils had to be provided by the patients themselves. All food had to be carried from the various camp kitchens until May 4 when sufficient cooking utensils finally were supplied to allow the Hospital Kitchen to operate. The lack of all simple housekeeping equipment was and still is a great handicap.
C22a Number of beds.
The hospital now has available 26 beds for adults and five for children distributed as follows:
This number is reasonably sufficient for the ordinary turn-over of acute cases provided an epidemic does not break out. It does not adequately provide, however, for the chronic cases such as the tuberculosis and cardiac group.
The out-patient department has four rooms for the Medical, Surgical, Ophthalmologic and Dental Clinics and one for the Registrar. In addition there is an operating room, a laboratory, a pharmacy and several supply rooms.
On April 10 detailed lists of necessary equipment were turned in to the authorities. None of these materials have been received although recently the beds were measured for mattresses, blankets, sheets and pillow cases.
The operating room is reasonably equipped for emergency surgery with instruments and materials brought by the internees, from Peking, Tientsin, etc. The Japanese have furnished a non-adjustable operating table, a kerosene burning sterilizer (without lamp or kerosene), a few syringes, an outfit for direct blood transfusion, enough instruments to incise and dress an abscess and a few other items of no consequence. A few instruments such as deep retractors, long clamps are badly needed as also are reliable water still and flasks for the preparation of solutions for intravenous administration. A list of these needs has already been supplied to Mr. Joerg and Mr. Egger.
A small laboratory has been set up with materials brought along and a few others salvaged locally. Through the assistance of Dr. Hoeppli a satisfactory microscope was secured. Routine examinations of blood, urine, sputum and feces are possible, but no facilities exist at present for bacteriological, chemical or serological work. A small incubator would be invaluable. Certain glass ware such as burettes pipettes centrifuge tubes etc. are urgently needed as well as a hemocytometer and Sahli Haemoglobinometer.
These items were included in the above mentioned list.
The hospital wards need much simple equipment of all kinds, such as basins, pails, brushes, thermometers, etc.
22c Medical Supplies.
At the time the camp opened a few drugs were provided by the authorities, but in quantity and kind totally inadequate to meet the medical needs of 1,800 people. Since that time typhoid and cholera vaccine and 2.5 litres 2500 cc of alcohol have been provided. On June 14 a few other drugs were received with the statement that others would follow later. Only the considerable supply of many medicines brought in by the internees has saved the situation. In many instances this supply has already run low or been completely exhausted. The arrival on June 13 of many drugs urgently needed, provided through the courtesy and assistance of the Swiss Consul, Mr. 0. Joerg and myself, well may prove life saving. Fortunately, fairly large quantities of used gauze and muslin dressings were found about the hospital when we came. These will prove sufficient for some months. Nothing of this kind has been provided by the Authorities.
22d Treatment - free of charge
Medical, surgical and dental attention as well as drugs have been provided free of charge to the entire population of the camp.
22e Who pays for the supplies?
The supplies brought into camp were provided by the various Relief Committees as well as by private organizations and individuals. All were contributed to the general use of the community.
23 Dental Treatment.
23a Dental Equipment.
All dental equipment was the personal property of Dr. W. B. Prentice of Peking and was brought by him from that city.
Sufficient equipment is at hand for fillings and extractions but facilities for crown, bridge and prosthetic work are lacking. Routine dental supplies have been requested from the authorities but so far nothing has been received.
23 b Supply of dentures by whom, whether free?
A few dentures (about 25) have been taken to Tsingtao by me for repair. The cost of this work is charged to the individual.
23/4 Ocular Treatment.
(a) Who supplies glasses, lenses?
Dr. N. S. Hopkins brought from Peking equipment for refraction. He hopes to be able to send prescriptions for glasses to that city to manufacturers with whom he is accustomed to deal. So far, however, broken lenses, spectacle frames etc, all have been taken to Tsingtao for repair at the expense of the patient.
23/25 Hospital Treatment.
So far only two patients have been sent outside the camp for treatment. The patient with the perforated peptic ulcer previously referred to was sent to a Japanese Hospital at Tsingtao for operation. Recently Dr. A. C. Bryson was allowed to take his wife to the German Hospital, Peking for X-Ray or operative treatment of persistent uterine bleeding. In this instance choice of hospital and doctor was allowed. In both cases third class travel was provided. Dr. Bryson was able to change this to 2nd class at his own expense. He was not allowed to remain in Peking while his wife was undergoing treatment.
HOSPITAL STATISTICS FOR THE MONTH OF MAY, 1943
|Medical, Surgical & Opthalmological Clinics||1439|
|Inoculations against Diphtheria||38|
|Inoculations against Typhoid||39|
Exclusive of Home visits by Doctors.
|Number of patients visited||193|
|Number of visits paid||698|
|Reductions of Fractures under anesthesia||2|
|Number of Prescriptions dispensed (exclusive of drugs used for In-Patients)||538|
|Number of examinations carried out||438|
D 26 Food, Cooking Facilities..
At no time have the Food Supplies Committee nor I been able to obtain any data or figures as to the scale of foodstuffs allowed per person. From the commencement of the camp until June 7, 1943 the weighing and distribution of all food supplies was handled by a Japanese storekeeper and access to figures prepared by him was impossible. Frequently such allocations were, to say the least, very erratic and carelessly handled inasmuch as the use of any scales was ignored time and again. Such method of distribution was, naturally, very unsatisfactory and made unfair distribution a frequent occurrence. Continuing with their requests for a closer handling of food issues, the Committee as from June 7th were eventually allowed to accept food rations in bulk and arrange individual distribution to the four kitchens, and although under these arrangements no scale was available and allocation a matter of estimation, a much fairer distribution was arrived at, but it was not until internees salvaged and reconditioned an old pair of scales that the Food Committee were able to arrive at a more complete and satisfactory method of distribution and at the same time obtain some idea of the scale of various rations being issued per person. As such records have only been in operation a few days it is impossible at this time to issue complete figures of all food items issued.
The following is list of foodstuffs issued from time to time with covering remarks as called for under:
(a) and (b) MEAT (confined to-date to Beef only) Pork was for Japanese consumption.
(a) Meat received has always been 'roughly handled', that is, badly cut and therefore containing too large a percentage of low 1st grade meat with comparative high percentages of 2nd grade (Stewing) and 3rd grade (soup) meat. On opening the camp from 2 to 3 days of meat was held in storage at one time, but with the arrival of the hot weather and lack of any cold storage arrangements only 1 day's meat is received at a time and issued to the kitchens as promptly as possible. Even under this arrangement the meat is not free from 'smell' on arrival and portions have frequently been found tainted and unfit for consumption, as the supply is shipped in by rail in closed boxes not insulated, ventilated or in any way artificially cooled. Slaughtering in Weihsien had to be given up through lack of supplies.
Slaughtering of the cows or bulls was given up. No suitable supplies could be obtained. The farmers bring only the poorest of the poorest animals, and good quality animals can only be secured by Japanese military requisition parties. Therefore, meat must come from Tsingtao Army distribution centre, but I shall do all to secure a better quality and larger quantity.
(b) Meat issued daily. Ration considered entirely inadequate especially having in mind the surplus of sinew and muscle which is not edible and can only be used for soup flavoring. Figures below show meat issued for period June 7th to 12th (6 days rations) ― all uncooked weights. The supplying of meat seems to cause some concern to the camp authorities owing to outside shortage. From observation the ration appears to be roughly from 525/550 lbs. per day, but during the period mentioned above several days were short of this figure, and the Food Committee have been notified at this writing that no meat can be expected for 13th and 14th instant but that supplies will be resumed in 15th instant. To tide over this period additional Egg ration has been promised.
(a) Shipped in from Tsingtao in barrels, with ice packing and distributed as early as possible. Generally speaking supplies have arrived in a satisfactory condition, but with the arrival of hot weather this item may have to be withdrawn.
(b) Fish supplied once a week, and does not affect the meat issue for the day. Quantity of fish entirely inadequate for the whole camp, at least double of the present supply is necessary. No weight record available.
FLOUR (BREAD etc.)
(a) Second grade Flour issued and found satisfactory. All baking done in camp by internees. "Dawalu" yeast used.
(b) Supplies of Flour and Bread sufficient at present ration of about 1 - 1/10 lbs of Bread per person per day with additional flour for kitchen use. Approximately 280 bags flour issued weekly for all purposes.
(a) Good quality fresh eggs.
(b) Ration approximates 2 eggs per person per week. This issue considered inadequate bearing in mind the absence of cereals and short meat ration.
Canteen arrangements permit purchase of additional 2 eggs per person about every 5 to 6 days. It might be pointed out that the camp is situated in one of the previously largest egg producing districts in China, but now the chickens have become few in comparison.
(a) No issue for almost one month.
(b) In the early stages of the camp limited ration of Oat Meal was issued but soon exhausted. Since then despite continuous requests for some kind of cereal the Food Committee have been unable to obtain any satisfaction. However, the information was recently volunteered that this matter was receiving the attention of the authorities and that cereal in some form would shortly be provided.
(a) Quality satisfactory.
(b) At the commencement issue of old crop potatoes was sufficient and remained so up until a month or 5 weeks ago when the issue became very short and erratic depending on when stocks were received. The reason given for this shortage was that new crop potatoes were not available in sufficient quantities to meet their requirements. New crop potatoes have now commenced coming in every few days and increased rations have been promised when the market is more plentiful. This is camp's chief item to fill up a meal and is much desired. The recent short issue has been entirely inadequate. Weight records not available.
Consisting of Leeks, Spinach, Carrots, Turnips, Onions, Bean Sprouts, Cabbage, Radishes, Sorel, Cucumber issued according to season.
(a) Vegetables received fresh and in good condition.
Unfortunately lack of cold storage is detrimental to same if stocks are carried over 24 hours which sometimes occurs.
(b) Issue considered insufficient. This is particularly noticeable when ample supplies of potatoes are not forthcoming as referred to above. Present ration approx. 3/4 lb per person per day of Fresh Vegetables ― uncooked weight.
FRUITS (FRESH OR OTHERWISE)
(a) Non issue at any time. Extremely limited quantities have been on sale in the canteen from time to time according to season,
(b) It is considered that the issue of some kind of fruit should be made to maintain goon health among the internees.
(a) Good clean product issued.
(b) Issue inadequate. No record available over any period, but last issue approximately 388 oz per person per day. Sugar is rationed for all outside people. Including Japanese 1 lb per head per month.
(a) Confined to Apple Jam ― sweetened.
(b) Seldom issued. Ration entirely inadequate bearing in mind there is no fruit issue and very small sugar issue. Last issue of Jam approximated 3/4 oz per person.
Condiments (Salt & Pepper)
(a) Quality sufficient.
(b) Issue satisfactory on present basis.
(a) Good Quality.
(b) Seldom issued. Needed for thickening purposes. Have requested a more frequent issue.
(a) Good quality.
(b) Issue inadequate. Ration considered 7 or 8 x 5 gallon tins per week. This quantity has been exceeded in the past but authorities advise they have been using too much and must curtail their usage. Food Committee have pressed for at least a minimum of 12 x 5 gallon tins per week, and at present indications are that an increase will be granted. This is an important item in their cooking as little or no fats are available. The committee are anxious for increased supplies to be available at the earliest possible date.
(a) Quality satisfactory.
(b) Present issue inadequate and an increase in the ration of this item has been requested.
(a) Inferior to home product but satisfactory.
(b) Present ration sufficient.
(a) Inferior to home product but satisfactory
(b) Increased ration would be appreciated.
(a) Quality 2nd grade but satisfactory.
(b) Present issue sufficient.
(a) A Barley Product of North China Coffee Company.
(b) Occasional issue. A more frequent issue would be appreciated as a change in place of daily Tea Issue.
(a) A prepared product of satisfactory quality.
(b) Occasional issue. Probably not considered a regular camp issue.
(a) Quality inferior but satisfactory. Unfortunately no rice is available for correct curried meal.
(b) Present ration sufficient.
(a) Inferior quality but appreciated.
(b) Ration entirely inadequate. Issued on an average once a week on the approximate scale of 1 oz per person.
(a) Previously drawn from Tsingtao and local farm sources and undoubtedly adulterated with water. This source now discontinued and 10 Milk Cows kept in the camp ensuring better grade milk.
(c) Quantity entirely inadequate and reserved exclusively for very young children and sick internees. Many others in need of milk have to be denied even though their age and/or condition may demand same. Tinned or Powdered Milk not available for issue or, to-date, on sale at the canteen. With the summer stomach ailments to anticipate, the demand for milk will be increased.
BAKING POWDER SPICES FLAVOURINGS etc., etc.
(a) No issue.
(b) Requests for the above have been made and it is hoped stocks will be forthcoming in the not too distant future.
From the foregoing it will be gathered that with the exception of a few minor items the general ration issue in the main is inadequate. It must be particularly stressed that an enormous amount of heavy work has to be done by the majority of the internees to ensure proper running of the camp, and such workers have to be adequately fed to retain their energy to enable them to fulfill their camp duties which are mostly of manual nature. The Food Committee has at all times pressed the camp authorities for increased rations of many items, but regulations naturally are hard to overcome and any response is slow in forthcoming.
The following is a summarized statement prepared by a Dietary Expert from the internees showing results of Dietary Study covering one 12 day period (May 1st ― 12th, 1943) for one kitchen feeding around 400 people; carefully measured intake and calculation of food value using standard tables of food analyses.
1. Average per capita intake per day (grammes)
|Carrots & Radishes||66|
|Onions & Leeks||52|
|Fats & Oils||20|
2. Calculated nutritive value per capita per day
(This requirement is figure for sedentary individual).
x Intake and requirement for Vitamins are not easily expressed in figures (data insufficient)
xx Does not include Oranges (containing Vitamin C which has been occasionally available through Canteen.)
|Most glaring are in||Calcium|
These can be most readily met by supplying:
|for Calcium:||Milk and Beans (see note below)|
|Vitamin B:||Whole Cereals and Beans.|
|Vitamin C:||Fresh Fruit.|
|Calories :||Whole Cereals and Beans|
The lack of Calcium is the most serious of the above four items. If milk and legumes (beans) are not to be secured, could an adequate supply of Bone Meal be made available, ― or the raw material (bones) and proper milling machinery for making bone meal. To attempt to partly meet the Calcium needs of small children and adolescents, we are grinding up egg shells and feeding this. Egg shells however are inferior to bone meal and probably only partly meet the need; moreover the supply of egg shells is itself wholly inadequate.
If some arrangement could be made for the Canteen to supply a line of nourishing food this should include:
1. An abundance of Fruit. Some kind of fruit always.
2. Oatmeal and other whole cereals in stock.
3. Tinned material of all kinds, especially Milk and Egg Products.
27. (a) & (b)
On the opening of the camp no special provisions were available for providing special diet to either children, aged or sick persons. The Medical section pressed for such and permission was granted to recondition the kitchen in the hospital basement. The work of reconditioning this kitchen was carried out entirely by the internees themselves with certain fittings and equipment supplied by the authorities. The results have fully justified themselves though the accommodation and capacity for cooking cannot be said to be adequate to meet all needs. At present the special diet kitchen takes care of all children up to the age of 3 years, aged and those in need of special diet as well as in-patients in the hospital. The average number handled under this kitchen would be from, say 130 to 150 individuals daily. As there is no special food provided the usual kitchen rations are used. To-day certain foodstuffs necessary for diet kitchen requirements have arrived from me, which are much appreciated by those responsible for diet kitchen work. It is hoped that this diet kitchen can eventually add further ages of children to their present list.
Undoubtedly a number of internees brought stock of provisions with them, and with the short food ration, have depended considerably on such stocks as they had privately. Naturally individual provision stocks are gradually becoming exhausted after almost 3 months camp life, and people are more and more having to depend entirely on camp rations unless receiving parcels from outside sources.
There are no facilities for buying from outside sources except by mail arrangements. Refer to Discipline Committee report on this matter: The Canteen has not to date had stocks of foodstuffs for sale.
Kitchen installation is very primitive reducing the major portion of food preparations to boiling and stewing, a certain amount of frying can be done on native type ranges, but even most of the meals prepared in that style frying has to be done by means of using the "Kuos" (cauldrons) when not in use for boiling or stewing purposes. At the commencement boiling facilities were not sufficient for cooking and taking care of the enormous amount of water t o be boiled for drinking or tea making, but some old boilers were salvaged by the internees which has considerably relieved the situation. The camp is divided into four kitchens as follows:
|Kitchen No. 1||755 persons (approx.)|
|Kitchen No. 2||497 persons (approx.)|
|Kitchen No. 3||411 persons (approx.)|
|Kitchen No. 4 (Diet Kitchen)||129 persons (approx.)|
|TOTAL =||± 1792|
(a) Kitchen utensils entirely inadequate in every respect. Repeated requests are being made for additional equipment as well as additions to the present issue. Some items have been received from time to time but insufficient to meet the needs for cooking for such a large number of people. At the present time the department concerned have a considerable list of items ordered by the Food Supplies Committee from time to time which have not been filled other than by verbal promises.
Mess seating accommodation is suitable for around 800 persons in total and calls for, generally speaking, two sittings. This has been more or less overcome by people automatically 'staggering' themselves so that meals are served in a continuous manner.
(b) Fuel is adequate at the present time but no reserve stocks are held, additional coal and firewood being brought in when needed.
For general camp supplies one Foreign built residence has been turned over as a store room. Each kitchen has a small room adjoining for their individual stores as received from the general camp supply rooms. It should be stressed here that there is, generally speaking, extremely little reserve stocks of foodstuffs apart from flour which is received from time to time in approximately 1000/1200 bag lots. Other reserve stocks would not suffice the camp for more than, say 24 hours and would not include any Meat, Eggs and probably no vegetables. We understand that arrangements will be made, and necessary materials supplied, to salt down a small reserve of meat, but in view of the present meat shortage it cannot be said with any certainty when these plans can be carried out.
A number of Refrigerators were shipped in by the Tientsin internees (14 machines) and of these four are out of commission due to mechanical defects. This is the only refrigeration medium existing in the camp and, as will be realized entirely inadequate considering the bulk of food which should be kept in refrigeration.
The only facilities for preparing private food is by means of small brick and mud stoves which internees have built themselves near the various blocks.
Labor in the Weihsien Camp can be styled compulsory in as much as the internees have to do practically everything for themselves connected with their daily lives.
They do all the handling, preparing, cooking and serving of their food ― including the baking of bread; carry all their fuel, stoke their fires, pump and carry all their water for every purpose; do their own carpentry, pipe fitting and masonry work; do much of their own laundry, and operate a canteen where limited supplies of some necessities are sold. Not the least of their achievements is the rehabilitations of the hospital at a tremendous expenditure of labor. This institution is staffed entirely by their own doctors and nurses and they operate there a vitally important diet kitchen. It was also a task of considerable magnitude from the labor angle to get the accumulated filth of the camp cleaned up (the debris they found here on their arrival) and they continue by their own efforts to keep it clean. Night soil is removed by Chinese contractors, but kitchen garbage and other refuse is carried outside the compound by camp personnel. A general storm drainage scheme for the camp, planned by internee engineers, for execution by internees before the anticipated early advent of the rainy season, is now under way and a considerable number of male internees are busy digging surface drains.
The foregoing requires work in varying amounts from all their adults physically able to make their contribution, and, in addition to their personal work, adult internees do community work averaging 2 1/2 hours per day for women and 3 1/2 hours per day for men, although many individuals of both sexes work five and six hours daily.
Instances have arisen when they have definitely been required by the camp authorities to do certain specific tasks, and at once, but it may be said in extenuation that all such jobs to date have had as their avowed object the improvement of camp conditions and facilities. There has, however, been considerable work required that proved unnecessary, presumably because of lack of planning, thus resulting in duplication of effort. The question of work for hire has not arisen.
The members of the Committee who took office were Bro. J.F. Janning (Catholic Group), Miss Peer (Peking), Mr. R. A. Jacob (Tsingtao), and Mr. W. Pryor (Tientsin), it being agreed between them that Mr. Pryor should act as their representative in dealings with Mr. S. Tsukikawa and the Camp authorities.
The activities organized or cared for by the Committee comprise to date:
1. A kindergarten and Nursery school for children under 6 years of age.
2. Two schools for children and minors ranging in age from 6 to 17 years.
(a) According to the British system of Education and
(b) According to the American system of Education.
3. Classes for Adults.
4. Public Lectures.
5. A Musical Society.
6. A dramatic society.
1) KINDERGARTEN AND NURSERY SCHOOL
(Headmistress Miss Clarke)
|Number of pupils||65|
|Number of Teachers||8|
|Number of Classes||3 (i.e. Transition, Kindergarten and Nursery)|
This branch of the Committee's activities is superintended by Mr. R. A. Jacob. Two classes are housed in the two upper rooms of Building 25, while the third or Nursery school, consisting of the smallest children and numbering 35, has of necessity to be accommodated out of doors in the south sports field.
Hours of work are 9.30 a.m. to 12 noon daily except on Saturdays and Sundays.
The accommodation and the equipment for these schools are far from satisfactory and make the proper education of the Children difficult. The provision of small tables and benches for the class rooms in Building 25 and that of 'Pengs' and a storeroom for the equipment of the class using the South Sports field has however, been promised and will, when completed, improve matters greatly.
2) SCHOOLS FOR CHILDREN AND MINORS
(Superintended by Mr. W. Pryor)
(a) The British School (Headmaster Mr. G. T. Foxlee)
|Number of Pupils||117|
|Number of Teachers||14|
|Number of classes||12|
Hours of work are: for the five junior classes 9 a.m. to 12.00 noon daily except Saturdays and Sundays.
For the seven senior classes 9 a.m. to 12.20 p.m.
Sat. & Sun. except and 2 p.m. to 3.30 p.m.
The five Junior classes of this school, comprising 54 pupils are accommodated in the two larger rooms in the basement of Building 24, the remaining 7 classes being accommodated in the Church Building.
The organization of this school was facilitated by the fact that two thirds of the pupils and most of the teachers were residents of Tientsin, enabling the committee to reestablish the British school which had been functioning previously in Tientsin and to incorporate therein such additional British children as had entered the camp from elsewhere.
The accommodation and the equipment for this school are not unsatisfactory.
(b) The American School (Headmistress Miss Moore)
|Number of Pupils,||55|
|Number of Teachers||14 (Excluding Catholic Sisters)|
|Number of grades||12 (who also assist)|
Hours of work are: -
For the six junior grades
(i.e. I - VI) 9 a.m. to 12 noon except Saturdays and Sundays
For the six senior grades
(i.e. VII-XII) 9 a.m. to 12.20 p.m. 2 p.m. to 3.30 p.m. except Sat. and Sun.
The six junior grades, comprising 24 pupils, are accommodated in the two smaller rooms in the Basement of Building 24; the six senior grades are accommodated in the mornings either in the Church yard (out of doors) or in No. 1 Dining hall and in the afternoons in the two smaller rooms of the Basement of Building 24.
The bulk of the pupils in this school hail either from the American School in Peking or from that previously functioning in Tsingtao. In order not to disturb the courses of study in which each party was engaged it was therefore felt desirable in the six senior grades to permit pupils to continue under those teachers who had accompanied them from Peking and Tsingtao respectively until the end of the school year (i.e. the end of June). A reorganization of classes among grades VII and XII may be considered when the school re-opens after the summer vacation.
The equipment for this school is satisfactory but the accommodation available for the six senior grades is poor ― neither, seemingly, can it be improved under existing conditions.
3. CLASSES FOR ADULTS,.
The promotion of Adult Education in the Camp has been entrusted to the special care of Brother Janning and has proved a highly successful though formidable undertaking.
The Camp contains an abundance of highly qualified teachers and lecturers who have generously and enthusiastically given of their free time to assist this work while from the residents, to whom this opportunity of study has been offered, there has been a very gratifying response.
The difficulties that have arisen through lack of adequate class room accommodation and the necessity of arranging classes at times that would not conflict with the Camp duties of Teachers and students have proved severe but have, with cooperation and adjustment among all concerned, been suitably met.
The degree of benefit accruing to the community from the promotion of these classes can perhaps best be appreciated by an examination of the class schedule, a copy of which will be found attached and at the conclusion of which are recorded the following statistics:
|Number of Teachers||78|
|Number of classes||113|
|Number of class periods per week||309|
|Number of students by classes||1575|
|Number of student hours per week:||3763|
Classes commenced on May 7th 1943 and will continue until July 17th, after which it is proposed to have a short recess before the second semester begins.
4) PUBLIC LECTURES.
This sphere of activity is in the special care of Miss Speer by whom lecturers are canvassed and lectures arranged.
It has been the purpose of the Committee to provide one lecture every week on Wednesday evenings at 8.00 p.m. To date the following four lectures have been given which have been well attended and much appreciated:
- May 5th Dr. Williams H. Adolph - "The Wisdom of the Body" or
"What Happens to the Food We Eat"
- May 12th Father Scanlon - "The Life of a Trappist"
-May 19th Mr. Ahmad Kamal - "Central Asia"
- May 26th Mr. Theodore Bodde - "The Planets"
It is hoped to continue such weekly lectures regularly in the lecture room of Building 25, but should the seating capacity of the room prove insufficient it would be possible to arrange for the use of the Church Building.
5) MUSICAL SOCIETY.
This society is controlled by sub-committees appointed by popular selection, Mr. Curtis Grimes being the chairman of the General Committee.
The activities of this committee are many and the entertainments provided have proved extremely popular. Apart from regular weekly Victrola concerts and occasional meetings for community singing which are held in Building 25, concerts or light musical entertainment have been provided each Saturday evening in the Church Building. This sitting capacity of the church building (i.e. approximately 640) has proved to be inadequate. It has consequently now become the general rule to offer the same concerto entertainment on two consecutive nights ― Fridays and Saturdays.
6) DRAMATIC SOCIETY.
This society was formed at the end of April under the direction of an elected sub-committee with Mrs. Tipper as Chairman. Several plays are now being studied and rehearsals have commenced, giving hope that productions may be offered to the community by the end of June.
In this camp there exists a wealth of Educational talent and the community as a whole has not been slow to show its appreciation of this fact by accepting the opportunity thus offered and to benefit there from. Of the children and minors residing in the camp it may be said that all are being provided with a good education ― a fact which is much appreciated by all parents. Of the adult residents fully one third are following one or more courses, while virtually all are benefiting from the enjoyment of attending the musical entertainment provided.
K43 Recreation facilities
REPORT ON RECREATIONS FROM APRIL 27, TO JUNE 12, 1943.
1. The following table shows the program of sports and events held at the camp so far:
2. Table 2 shows the number of fields and equipment made available for the above activities:
The Camp Authorities required this equipment to be paid for in cash on delivery of goods.
All equipment used to date has been furnished by the internees themselves. At present this supply has almost completely run out.
Softball has proved to be the most interesting and exciting in the way of recreation at this camp for both player and spectator. However, this game will have to be discontinued within this week as the present supply of softballs has been completely exhausted.
3. Table 3 shows sundries, etc., necessary to carry on a limited program in sports and recreation;
L 44 Committee elected by the various groups of internees:
|E. McLaren (Chairman)||Tientsin|
|H. E. Olsen||Tsingtao|
|P. J. Lawless||Peking|
|Father Rutherford||Catholic Group|
The Chief of Police (Nakanishi) and his assistant (Yoshinada) are educated men who so far have taken a not unreasonable attitude towards internees, and are persons who can be dealt with in a reasonable manner. The same thing, however, cannot be said for the rank and file of the police, who on occasions have been unnecessarily free in the use of their hands and who, typical of their type, have frequently taken it upon themselves to arrest, try and punish their unfortunate charges. So far there have been three cases in which "slapping" has been indulged in by the Police guards.
Mr. L.C.Porter. ― age 62 ― American.
A trivial charge of bumping into a guard ― Arrested and taken to the police office, where without trial his face was slapped. A rather indefinite apology was obtained from the Chief of Police.
Miss A. Black ― age 38 ― British.
Slapped by the guard in the police office whilst the Chairman of the Discipline Committee was endeavoring to secure her release. No police officer was in the room at the time,
A. Lambert ― age 16 ― British.
Arrested for attempting to purchase honey from a Chinese over the compound wall, and beaten by the guard who arrested him.
The second and third cases cited occurred after the Chief of Police had agreed verbally that punishment could only be ordered by him after the delinquent had received a fair trial in the presence of the Chairman of the Discipline Committee and moreover, that a member of the Discipline Committee would be called immediately an arrest was made.
Following on these three instances an agreement confirmed verbally, but not yet signed, was drawn up detailing the procedure to be followed.
The police to patrol and control the boundary walls and "out-of-bounds" area.
The entire enforcement of discipline within the Camp to be in the hands of the Discipline Committee, which shall be directly responsible to the Chief of Police only.
All minor misdemeanors shall be dealt with by the Discipline Committee at their discretion, but crimes of a serious nature shall be reported immediately to the Chief of Police.
Disciplinary measures for dealing with offences committed shall be recommended by the Discipline Committee to the Chief of Police, with whom the decision as regards the settlement of the case shall rest.
A Fire Brigade of internees to be formed to function under the Discipline Committee.
Persons arrested shall be taken to the Police Office where their case will be heard by a Police Officer in the presence of the Chairman of the Discipline Committee. Punishment shall be ordered by the Chief of Police only.
It must be understood that this agreement, even if signed by the Chief of Police, may well fail in its purpose, which is to avoid arbitrary action being taken up officially. These juniors are by training and up-bringing quite incapable of dispensing justice as we know it, and moreover, it is apparently difficult for the Officers of the Police to control entirely the actions of their men.
Shortage of food has forced internees to take steps to augment their diet and has led to the establishment of a "Black Market" over the wall, where eggs, peanut oil, honey and other local produce have been purchased. The Police, people who have strict orders to prevent internees from communicating with Chinese, are now taking steps to prevent this and state that as from 10th June they will enforce the following measures:
All Chinese in close proximity to or on the boundary wall will be shot on sight. (Nothing has happened since, the black market is still going on as usual and I believe that nobody will be shot nor will anyone be delivered. Arrangements can be made in a friendly way to suit all parties.
An electrified fence will be erected around the Camp.
Internees caught trading will be sentenced to solitary confinement for varying periods.
In addition to the foregoing, carts bringing in stores are now stopped at the gate. The coolies must remain outside whilst internees take the carts inside and unload them. The reason for this is, we are informed, to prevent communication with Chinese. It is hardly necessary to add that this ruling has not been received with acclamation, and it is being fought on the grounds that whilst internees are prepared and are liable to carry out reasonable duties within the Camp, the delivery of foodstuffs to the store house is the responsibility of the Authorities.
The root of all this discontent and the greatest danger to discipline is the shortage of food. It has been pointed out repeatedly to the Authorities that the remedy lies in their hands, i.e. to increase rations and arrange for adequate supplies of local produce in the canteen. The Chief of Police appreciates this point and has made an effort to assist them. Unfortunately this effort has resulted only in an absurdly small quantity of eggs appearing in the canteen. The supply department either will not, or cannot, secure adequate supplies.